By Francis Michael Longstreth Thompson
The ultimate quantity discusses the associations that affected social stipulations and encouraged values and attitudes. Social rules have been made for the main half by means of the very easily off and people in energy for the meant strong of the fewer lucky. members to this quantity study those projects with reference to, between others, the improvement of well-being care, philanthropy and the voluntary area, the police and crime, specialist institutions and unions.
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Additional info for The Cambridge Social History of Britain, 1750-1950, volume 3: Social Agencies and Institutions
Popular expectations had been raised, then dashed by parliamentary reform and its outcome, by education and factory reform followed by a widely disliked poor law. The outcome was both Chartism and the election of Peel's Tory government in 1841. IV Peel's fundamental approach to government was unchanged since 1830; however, he and his colleagues had learned the necessity to take some account of the effects of that approach upon subordinate groups, that whatever the abstract desirability of self-improvement and individual moral responsibility the mass of the population could not achieve these ideals without assistance.
At least as influential was James Kay-Shuttleworth (originally James Phillips Kay) initially a medical man, from 1840 secretary to the Privy Council committee for education and until 1849 a remarkable force behind the expansion of state provi sion for education; Leonard Horner, one of the first factory inspectors; William Farr, another medical man, from 1837 the first Registrar General of Births, Marriages and Deaths, who used his role to investi gate the major causes of disease and death and to stress the importance of healthy 'human capital' for a thriving economy.
From 1856 central government was prepared to pay a 25 per cent subsidy to local police forces on condition that a Home Office inspectorate recognised them as efficient; though several authorities refused it, preferring to retain wholly independent control of their police. Local sanitary improvements were chivvied along until 1871 by Tom Taylor at the Local Government Act Office. Where local initiative was taken it was less often a response to recognition of intolerable evils, which local elites were generally slower to perceive than were the inhabitants of some of the appalling urban areas of the period, than to dramatic crisis with wide social impact.