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By Bhamidimarri, Rao

Complaints of the foreign convention held at Massey collage, Palmerston North, New Zealand, 26-27 might 1988

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Site plan of irrigation trial to hold the sampler firmly in contact with the soil (Figure 2). 6 atm and can withdraw water for a two-week period. 1 LT=Less Than 46 ALTERNATIVE WASTE TREATMENT SYSTEMS Figure 2. Soilwater lysimeter showing suction sampler and sample receiver Monitoring of soil water in the unsaturated water zone above the water table was used to assess the treatment efficiency of the soil. Comparisons were made between the composition of the applied effluent and the composition of the soil water draining through the unsaturated zone, once allowances were made for the concentration of constituents by evapotranspiration and dilution by rain.

In the Waikato region of New Zealand, intensive dairy farming results in average nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the groundwater of about 26 g m−3 [7]. Irrigation with primary-treated meat-processing effluent at loadings up to 1200 kg N ha−1 y−1 produced groundwater effects similar to alternative land uses. However, if the groundwater is to be used as a drinking water supply, a nitrate-nitrogen limit of 10 g m−3 would apply and irrigation loading rates must be limited to 500–600 kg N ha−1 y−1.

Nitrogen removal was found to increase with longer detention times and higher system operating temperatures. No similar relationships were observed for phosphorus, BOD or suspended solids removal. Faecal Coliform Removal The gravel based aquatic macrophyte systems consistently achieved greater reductions in faecal coliform densities than tertiary maturation ponds operating at similar detention times. The trenches containing alternating sections of gravel planted with Typha, open water and unplanted gravel exhibited the greatest reductions in indicator bacteria densities.

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