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By Dr. H. van Dop, Prof. Dr. P. Fabian, Dr. H. Güsten, Dr. J. M. Hales, Dr. A. Wint (auth.)

Environmental Chemistry is a comparatively younger technology. curiosity during this topic, even if, is starting to be very speedily and, even if no contract has been reached as but concerning the certain content material and bounds of this interdisciplinary self-discipline, there seems to be expanding curiosity in seeing environmental issues that are in accordance with chemistry embodied during this topic. one of many first goals of Environmental Chemistry has to be the examine of our environment and of typical chemical methods which take place within the atmosphere. a big goal of this sequence on Environmental Chemistry, hence, is to provide a pretty uniform view of varied points of the chemistry of our environment and chemical reactions taking place within the surroundings. the commercial actions of guy have given a brand new measurement to Environmental Chemistry. we've got synthesized and defined over 5 million chemicals and chemical produces approximately hundred and fifty million a whole lot artificial chemical compounds each year. We send billions of a whole bunch oil according to 12 months and during mining operations and different geophysical differences, huge amounts of inorganic and natural fabrics are published from their normal deposits. towns and metropolitan parts of as much as 15 million population produce huge amounts of waste in rather small and constrained components. a lot of the chemical items and waste items of recent society are published into the surroundings both in the course of construction, garage, delivery, use or final disposal. those published fabrics perform typical cycles and reactions and regularly result in interference and disturbance of normal systems.

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Tii 103 c ~ ~ "' 0 ... - ""'.... J C) ! I! " !! if 10-' !. 1930 // / ! / / I / / / / / 7'"-,. ;or / / ! / ! I ! / I / /! /.... 2. Global release rates (heavy) and global cumulative emissions (thin) of the major anthropogenic halocarbons. Sources: CFC-ll and CFC-12 [33, 34], CFC-22 and CH 3 CC1 3 [35], CCl4 [36]. Recently updated emission rates of CFC-Il and CFC-12 [34] are shown by dotted lines. 29 Halogenated Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere 200 > Q. Q. 0 160 .... ) z x ::i! , +=0 o=b I: c . =d • =f ~ = e 111= 120 ~ 1,: Q • +1 i OL--L~ 1970 • • 80 40 .

Unless otherwise marked by (S) behind the year, all data originate from the northern hemisphere. a [60]; b [86]; c[61]; d [40]; e [107], f[107] Halogenated Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere 41 CFC-22 in the atmosphere is noticeable from the comparison of the two tropospheric profiles c and d measured 6 months apart in the southern and northern hemispheres, respectively. Model computations show that CFC-22 will soon become the dominating source of odd chlorine above 40 km if the present growth of the global emission remains unabated [107].

6 ? 0 The main sink of CH 3 Cl is due to the attack by hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere. The global removal rate through this process was estimated by Logan et al. 2 x 10 12 g y-1 yielding a lifetime of methyl chloride of 1 year. This was, however, based on tropospheric OR concentrations ranging between about 2 x 10 5 and 2 x 106 em - 3. Model calculations related to the global increase of the methyl chloroform abundance suggest that the OR concentrations have to be reduced by a factor of about 2 (see fig.

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