By Pramod Kulkarni, Paul A. Baron, Klaus Willeke
Aerosol size: ideas, innovations, and functions 3rd version is the main distinctive remedy on hand of the most recent aerosol size tools. Drawing at the information of various professional participants; it offers a superb snatch of size basics and practices a large choice of aerosol applications.
This re-creation is up-to-date to deal with new and constructing functions of aerosol size, together with functions in environmental healthiness, atmospheric technology, weather switch, pollution, public healthiness, nanotechnology, particle and powder expertise, pharmaceutical examine and improvement, fresh room expertise (integrated circuit manufacture), and nuclear waste management.
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Extra info for Aerosol Measurement: Principles, Techniques, and Applications
80 Â 10210 statC, and the proportionality constant KE is unity. For further discussion of charged particle dynamics, see Chapters 15, 18, 19, 20, and 32. 27 Vth ¼ 0:55 h rT rg dp , l (Eq. 2-51) where rT is the thermal gradient in K/m. There is a slight increase (on the order of 3%) in the velocity of rough-surfaced particles versus spherical solids or droplets. For particles larger than l, the thermophoretic velocity depends on the ratio of the thermal conductivity of the gas to that of the particle and also on the particle size.
A dimensionless parameter called the Knudsen number is used to describe continuum and slip flow regimes and is defined below. 1 Gas Mean Free Path The average velocity of a molecule, V, is a function of its molecular weight, M, and the gas temperature, T. 0289 kg/mol) at normal temperature and pressure (NTP: 20 8C, 1 atm), this molecular velocity is 463 m/s. 19 101 T 1 þ 110=293 l ¼ lr P 293 1 þ 110=T (Eq. 2-10) where P is in kPa and T in K. If the unit of atmosphere is used for pressure, the factor of 101 used in Equation 2-10 is substituted by one.
5 BROWNIAN DIFFUSION The random movement of gas molecules causes gas and particle diffusion if there is a concentration gradient. For instance, in a diffusion denuder, SO2 gas molecules may diffuse to an absorbing surface due to their high diffusivity. Sulfate particles, which are larger and therefore have lower diffusivity, will mostly be transported through the device. Thus, the SO2 gas molecules are separated from the sulfate particles. 1 Molecular Diffusion Diffusion always causes net movement from a higher concentration to a lower one.