By Rodney Huddleston, Geoffrey K. Pullum
This groundbreaking undergraduate textbook on sleek commonplace English grammar is the 1st to be in response to the innovative advances of the authors' past paintings, The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (2002). The textual content is meant for college kids in schools or universities who've very little earlier history in grammar, and presupposes no linguistics. It comprises workouts, and may offer a foundation for introductions to grammar and classes at the constitution of English, not just in linguistics departments but additionally in English language and literature departments and colleges of schooling.
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Additional resources for A Student's Introduction to English Grammar
Does he have enough money. Do I have to sign both forms ? Does he have a fit when you do that? [ perfect ] } [ static ] [dynamic] (c) Need Need behaves as an auxiliary (a modal auxiliary) when it has a bare infinitival com plement (overt or understood). Elsewhere, it is a lexical verb. e. in neg atives, interrogatives and related constructions: J Static have as an auxiliary is used more by older than by younger speakers, and is more characteris tic of BrE than AmE. 4 The general concept of auxiliary verb  LEXICAL VERB USAGE AUXILIARY USAGE a.
Instead of [37ii], therefore, we can have:  I told Stacy that Kim has blue eyes. 47 Chapter 3 Verbs, tense, aspect, and mood 48 Although indirect reported speech represents the most obvious case, backshift also happens quite generally in constructions where one clause is embedded within a larger one containing a preterite verb:  i Stacy didn 't know that Kim had blue eyes. ii I wondered at the time whether they were genuine. iii I wish I knew if these paintings were genuine. All the underlined verbs have backshifted tense.
For example, the con struction in [9iv] doesn' t allow either the preterite or the 3rd singular present: [I l] a. *It 's better to wrote to her. ii a. *It 's better to writes to her. b. *It 's better to was kind to her. b. *It 's better to 1£ kind to her. The plain present tense and the plain form thus enter into quite different sets uf contrast within the verb paradigm. And this is the basis for the different names we have given to the forms: the write of [9ia] is a present tense form, but that of [9iia-va] is not.