By Philip Jenkins (auth.)
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Extra resources for A History of the United States
From the end of the seventeenth century, missions spread north from Baja California along the Pacific coast, and celebrated evangelists such as Juniper Serra sought not only to convert the natives, but also to integrate them into the imperial economy as farm labourers and herders. Here too there was a structure of presidios, centred on Monterey, and by the 1760s the northwards expansion was sustained by the fear of possible military and imperial rivalry with Britain and Russia. From 1762 to 1801 Spain ruled the once-French territory of Louisiana, giving it theoretical sovereignty over a major portion of the continent.
A warrant was issued for the arrest of another proprietor, William Penn, calling for his capture for treason, and his proprietorship was suspended. Throughout 1689 all the colonies experienced a greater or lesser degree of upheaval until all eventually proclaimed the new royal family. Even when government had been more or less restored, other questions lingered. The old charters had been forfeited and new documents were often not obtained for years: not until 1691 in the case of Massachusetts. Moreover the new charters were often quite different from the old, and in New England it changed the criterion for political participation from the traditional notion of church membership to the more English property qualification.
THE ANGLO-FRENCH WARS Though the British colonies were developing a thriving cultural and economic life of their own, their prosperity depended on the tense international relationship with France. From the early eighteenth century, France was a leading military and commercial force on the North American continent and the Anglo-French wars usually had repercussions in America, so that military preparedness was a constant factor in the political life of the colonies. From 1689 to 1763 the wars caused regular revisions of the boundaries between the various colonial possessions - though captured EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT, 1492-1765 39 fortresses and colonies were often returned at the end of hostilities - while devastating population losses occasionally resulted from raids and invasions.