By Jiang Li
In A Grammar of Guiqiong, Jiang Li describes the grammar of Guiqiong, a hitherto undocumented language spoken via alpine humans in Kangding county, China. Guiqiong has much to supply in its phonology, verbal and nominal morphology, syntax and thesaurus, distinguishing itself from the neighbouring Tibetan, chinese language, Qiangic and Loloish languages. The newly chanced on good points of Guiqiong contain breathy vs. modal voice, indefinite quantity, ablative, ergative, instrumental, dative and genitive case markers, subject and emphatic markers, the diminutive suffixes, the pronominal and deictic structures, demonstratives and numerals, a wealthy shop of differentiated copular verbs expressing equationality, inchoative, animacy vs. inanimacy, based lifestyles and negation, verbal affixes indicating instructions, current annoying of skilled perceptions, gnomic stressful, perfective vs. imperfective point, modality and evidentiality.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Guìqióng: A Language of Sichuan
CHAPTER 2 Guìqióng Phonology In this chapter, the Guìqióng phonemes will be introduced. A Guìqióng phoneme can be a vowel, a consonant or a tone. The symbols used to represent the pronunciation of modern spoken Guìqióng are mainly those of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Guìqióng tones will be described together with initials of syllables ahead of vowels and consonants. The apostrophe is used either at the beginning of the syllable to indicate a high tone or immediately after the initial morpheme to indicate a low tone after van Driem’s Dzongkha (1998).
G. tʂhĩ ‘bed’ and tʂhi ‘very’, dzĩ ‘good-looking’ and dzi ‘blood; objectively possible’, mũ ‘man; steal’ and mu ‘classifier for a mouthful’, dzə̃ku ‘food steamer’ and dzə ‘just’, gɛ̃ ‘go’ and gɛ ‘good’, ʥiɐ̃ ‘land’ and ʥiɐn ‘convenient’. Permanently nasalised vowels are mainly found as syllable finals. g. [ɐn] in tshɐn ‘wound’ or [ɐŋ] in tshɐŋ ‘hair of animals’. g. lin ‘a red mushroom’, χənsɐn ‘sumac tree’, dɐn ‘affair, object’, ’liŋ ‘wear-resisting’, ʈhəŋki ‘cook’, widuŋ ‘wasp’, hɔŋni ‘yon [distal demonstrative]’ and sɐŋ ‘three’.
The populations of Lán’ān were obtained from an internet source because it is under the jurisdiction of Lúdìng county. As an old timer of Qiánxī village versed in Guìqióng folklore, Yáng Xiàoyún provided with some most precise numbers about Guìqióng speakers in towns 18 CHAPTER 1 such as Shèlián, Qiánxī, Màibēng and Shíjì. Though Shíjì is not marked on the map (Figure 1), it is located just opposite Gūzăn across the abysmal but narrow Dàdù River. In Qiánxī, a dozen Hàn Chinese villagers have learnt to speak the language due to the fact that local Guìqióng speakers do not speak Chinese.